The discovery of numbers was a great achievement for humans. Our life is can't imagine without numbers. During the stone age peoples uses pebbles for counting peoples or animals. After few ages pebbles replaced with sticks or ropes. Again after few ages symbols takes place. It discovers the numbering system ,we are still using.
ABACUS was the first calculating device used for simple calculation. ABACUS is a clay board with number of beads that are placed in rods or wires. These beads are moved from one side to another for counting. It was introduced to the world since 3000B.C. It was first developed in China but later it was used in the all part of world.
|ABACUS gives the only facility of addition of two numbers. A Englishman John Napier the introduces his Bones Machine to the world. It was capable of doing subtraction as well as addition. He uses logarithm for solving or manipulating these calculations.|
Pascale's Adding machine
|A Englishman Blais Pascal in 1943 invented a mechanical device named as Pascal's Adding machine. It was made up with the use of gears something like the gears uses in hand-wound watches. It was totally automatic mechanical device used for doing calculations.|
Babage's Analytical engine
|Charles Babage is called the Father of Computer. This was the first man who develop the concept of computer as it is right now. He designed his Analytical engine using the concept of Information and the concept of Input-Process-Output. But in that age there was not any source to run his machine. Because till then electricity was not invented. He puts a mile stone in the starting of computer age.|
|A census statician of U.S. census bureau Herman Hollerith invented a machine which uses electricity to run. That was the first time when data was stored successfully in an electronic device. His machine was capable of reading both numbers and characters and giving output of process as desired format. Data where entered into the computer by using Punched Card with the combination of holes , called codes. He established a company called " Tabulating Machine Company" which is today known as "International Business Machine Corporation (IBM)".|
And thus the generation of computer begins from here. Each generation comes with a lot of recherche in computer and to making it more powerful, more faster for use of human being.
Development and high research in computer sciences is taking it towards the high speed and more reliable. A computer generation can be divide in five generation.
First generation (1946-1955)
First generation computer uses Vacuum tubes. Magnetic tape drives and magnetic core memories where developed during this period. ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator And Calculator ) was the first electronic digital computer of this age. It uses about 18,000 vacuum tubes. Its size was too much large. Binary numbers were used as programming language. This was very hard to read and write programs by every person. The first generation computer produces too much heat.
Second generation computer(1956-1965)
Second generation computer uses a new electronic device called Transistor in the place of Vacuum tube. A transistor is made of semiconductor material called silicon. The size of transistor is only 1/200 of vacuum tube. Storage capacity of computer also increase during this generation. The development of symbolic programming language that is assembly language were used in this generation. This generation computers were used for business applications. example: IBM7094, IBM1620.
Third generation computer(1966-1975)
In third generation computer transistor were replaced with Integrated Circuit (IC) which is a combination of number of transistor and other electronic components fused together on single crystal. This generation machine uses magnetic tape and magnetic disk as secondary storage device. High level language like BASIC , COBOL, FORTRAN etc were developed during this period.
Fourth generation computer(1976-1985)
In fourth generation computer IC were replaced with Microprocessors .A microprocessor chip consist of entire central processing unit in a single chip. Large Scale Integration (LSI) and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology were used in fourth generation the size of computer reduced .Computing speed increased .
Fifth generation computer(1986-onward)
In fifth generation computer VLSI technology were replaced by Ultra large Scale Integration (ULSI) technology. This technology helped to developed very small but extremely powerful and fast computers which come to be known as ROBOTS.
Previous | Content | Next
rcpp project office
Rashtriya Computer Prakshikshan Pariyojna